Chapman's Mill, or as it is frequently called, Beverley's Mill, was believed to be the tallest stacked stone building in the United States and was built in 1742 by Jonathan and Nathaniel Chapman in Thoroughfare Gap on the Prince William-Fauquier County line. In 1861 the Confederates used the mill as a meat curing center and distribution warehouse.
When the Confederates withdrew from the area, they burned the mill and its contents to prevent it from falling into the hands of Northern forces. Sharpshooters from both sides would use the seven-story Beverley's Mill (then Chapman's Mill) to attack or defend the pass.
On August 28, 1862 the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap took place in and around the mill. Northern troops tried to prevent Generals Lee and Longstreet from marching through the Gap, from the west, to join other Confederate forces gathering for the Second Battle of Manassas.
Their failure to stop the Confederates directly contributed to the southern victory of the Second Battle of Manassas. During the Spanish-American War 10,000 American troops were camped in and around Thoroughfare Gap for six months while waiting transport to battle.
Owner John Chapman sued the government for damages but lost and his business never recovered. Mr. Chapman's family committed him to an asylum in 1864. Beverley Mill's continued its milling functions until 1951. When Interstate 66 was built, the road was rerouted in order to leave Beverley's Mill undisturbed.